Apertúra Film-Vizualitás-Elmélet
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Jonathan Auerbach: The Vocal Gesture. Sounding the Origins of Cinema

This essay examines the kinetics of vocalization in early cinema, how sound in these brief (silent) films was visually registered by way of mouth and lips. I show how initially for Edison and other inventors of the cinematic apparatus, it was the phonograph, not the photograph, that offered the closest analogy for their development of moving images; as a result of this analogy between ear and eye, early filmmakers anchored the sources of sound in the human face.
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Izabella Füzi: Functions of sound in Balázs's film aesthetics and in the context of the  transition to sound

Cinema is defined as an audiovisual medium, but establishing the functions of sound in its relation to image is still a problematic area in film studies. Béla Balázs in his second film aesthetics, The Spirit of Film (1930) draws a distinction between sound as representation and sound as mediation; the gap resulting from the definition of reproduced sound as a sound without origin and as pure repetition is surpassed by assigning the sound to image and to space. Based on the synchronization of sound and image, the sound/image interface articulates sound film as the flickering of visual presence and absence of the source of sound. In contrast, the sound/space interface makes noise (usually defined as something which frustrates communication) a source of information. In this way sound is an event which cannot be isolated from the corporeal and perceptual experiences of the auditor placed in a space defined by acoustic qualities. Mediating between aesthetics and technology, Balázs tries to find ways to show "the spirit of a technology and the technology of a spirit."
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Anna Paech: A néma alakja a hangosfilmben

The German cinema historian, Anna Paech examines how mute characters in sound films cite the tradition of silent cinema. This question is particularly interesting because the very existence of the mute character has been made possible by the sound film. However, in case a film focuses on a handicapped character, the visualization must follow some special rules in order to achieve an authentic representation. These techniques and their effects on the filmic narration are introduced with the help of two examples, Robert Siodmak's Spiral staircase and William Castle's The Tingler.
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Melinda Blos-Jáni: Is silence hereditary? Written words and acoustic events in contemporary silent films: Guy Maddin Careful (1992) and Esteban Sapir La Antena (2007)

Within the strategies built upon the intentional weakening of the diegetic efficiency, a group is formed by those films which try to reach this gesture of destruction by resorting to the diegetically weaker, in this sense pre-discursive way of expression of the silent cinema. In this paper the author analyzes two films from this perspective: Guy Maddin's Careful (1992) and Esteban Sapir's La Antena (2007).
The plot of these films, coupled with the effect achieved by the mimicry of the silent film, challenges interpretation. Regarding a contemporary context, the following questions arise: what are the discursive functions, on the one hand, of the style of silent cinema and, on the other, of the techniques weakening the diegetic effect, such as the absence of the synchronized sound and the use of intertitles in the film? The hypothesis of the argument is that turning to the visual style of silent film problematizes the medial relationship between image and text, image and voice respectively, and is manifested both at the level of the fable and in the use of filmic techniques.
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Michel Chion: Lines and points

The present article is chapter three of Chion's book entitled Audio-Vision [L'audio-vision], exploring the relationship between cinematic sound and image. The author questions the horizontal understanding of the two, which is used frequently in analyses of audiovisual aspects of films, and is based on the musical parallel of the counterpoint. Opposing this view, the author argues for a vertical perspective of audiovisual relations, which is further supported by his understanding of the soundtrack as track merely for technical reasons, and by regarding the auditory track not as the equivalent of the visual track. Through establishing a catalogue of various aspects of filmic sound (cut, audio-visual relations, dubbing), he introduces the reader into the system of his analysis through several filmic examples.
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Péter Szendy: On the Road (Fast forward)

Szendy examines the genre of the road movie as the representation of the audiovisual experience, primarily  through films of David Lynch. Film has been haunted by tracks, trails and lanes. With the appearance of sound, however, the gaze equipped with hearing [l'oeil-oreille] experiences the process of dromoscopy, of being on the road. The essay points out the special relationship between cinema and the double track road, which functions as the metaphor of audiovisuality.
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Zoltán Varga: A substitute for speach: the unique role of noise in animated film

The basic premise of the essay is the assumption that the "strategic combination" of the types of film sound, also known as the soundtrack, in live-action films and animated films can be organized differently. While in the live-action film the three basic sound types (speech, music, noise) generally tend to form a hierarchy, in which music and speech are primary, and noise is secondary, the animated film seems to revise this hierarchy of sound established by the live-action film. Although music still has a primary role among the sound types of the animated film, speech and noise are attributed an opposite function compared to live-action film: the soundtrack of the animated film frequently relies on the importance of noises instead of using articulated speech. The text discusses these observations in detail by examining very different animated films, however, they are definitely similar in their almost exclusive use of noise (e.g. Gerald McBoing-Boing, The Hand, Balance, Walls, Quest, Darkness, Light, Darkness, Moto perpetuo, Jumping).
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Anikó Zemankó: Musical sound and film. The examination of micro- and macroformal relationships between musical sound and image, musical piece and film

The paper examines structural parallels and links between two branches of art: music and film, focusing on the possibilities of music to connect to the image sequences of film. Film and music may be regarded as equal in a relationship in case a common denominator is found for their structural principles. Since the reception process involves cognitive processes restructuring related systems as wholes, the article reviews the results of cognitive psychology regarding parallel processing. As a first step, the argument provides parallels between film and music at three microstructural levels, after which it discusses more complex, macrostructural similarities.
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STUDENTS' WORKSHOP

Zsolt Zsombor Kapás: Mockumentary, a reflection of documentarist signification

Films labeled as "mockumentaries" (mock-documentaries) display a unique mixture of the logic of signification characteristic of documentaries and feature films respectively. The paper examines the ways mocumentaries reflect on a documentarist style of signification, starting with a brief definition of mocumentarism, stressing the aspects of filmic code systems relevant to them, as well as the interpretative processes related to them via their contexts. The mockumentary is based on the signifying mechanisms of documentaries. Individual mockumentaries turn to the apparatus of documentaries within a network of various intentions and influence mechanisms. The paper offers a system of categories in order to present the mutability of the examined form.
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Tamás Bodroghalmi: Minimalism in the films of Robert Bresson

The paper offers an experiment interpreting the minimalist technique of the French film director, Robert Bresson. It discusses the possible definitions of minimalist style, it deals in detail with its important characteristics, and thus contextualizes Bresson's minimalism. The main stylistic features of Bresson are treated through the discussion of illustrative examples. Bresson's style is treated vis-à-vis two minimalist contemporaries, Yasujiro Ozuv and Carl Theodor Dreyer. The paper hopes to contribute not only to a more nuanced understanding of Bresson's oeuvre, but also of minimalism in film.
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