Apertúra Film-Vizualitás-Elmélet
Summer 2012 | Nyomtatás |


Erwin Feyersinger: Diegetic Short Circuits: Metalepsis in Animation

This article explores a unique phenomenon termed metalepsis. A metalepsis is a fictional and paradoxical transgression of the border between mutually exclusive worlds, a border that cannot be transgressed in our actual world. The hand of the animator reaching into the diegesis of his creations as well as characters communicating with the audience, escaping to the world of their creators, or altering their own worlds are various types of metaleptic transgressions. Even though this phenomenon appears extensively throughout the history of animation, it has not been theorized in animation studies so far. This article introduces transmedial narratological conceptualizations of the metalepsis as an analytical tool for examining animation. It discusses a wide range of examples, testing the applicability of the framework on various animated forms.

Beáta Pusztai: Comics + Film = Animation film? The Japanese Animated Film in the Network of Intermedial Adaptations

This essay is a case study that addresses the issue of intermedial communication among the following three media of contemporary popular visual culture in Japan: comics (manga), animated film (anime), and live action film (jissha). Supposing that the manga-anime-jissha order reflects the actual order of influence and borrowing, the essay attempts to give the reader an overview of the possible ways of interaction among these media and examines the most frequently treated area of motif-borrowing. The following problems are dealt with: constructing space and time; detachment of the background of the shot from its diegetic foreground; and interaction among different levels of narration. The primary objective of the study is to define the anime as the ‘link' between the graphic medium of the manga and live action motion picture, which synthetisizes all the achievements of the other two media.


Orsolya Bencsik: The voice of the unknowable. Dolls and puppets as the intermediates of the soul


The aim of this essay is to emphasize the significant role of dolls and puppets as symbols of the soul and the unconscious in animated films and live-action films that are similar to animated films, at least from the point of view of applying puppets. The argumentation is based on films (including Takeshi Kitano's Dolls, Patrick Smith's Puppet, Jan Švankmajer's Alice) related to the representation of dreams, fantasies and nightmares. All of these processes offer visual devices to express our conscious and unconscious emotions and instincts. In my opinion, dolls and puppets are able to mediate and project emotions, instincts and anxieties, because they resemble the human body, although they are highly stylized at the same time.


Olga Blackledge: Violence, Chases and the Construction of Bodies in American and Soviet Animated Series

This article explores violence in animated films. The economic and social contexts of animated film production (of the USA and the USSR) are connected to the construction and dynamics of characters' bodies. By analysing animated chase series, the author suggests that violence that results in the fluidity and changeability of animated bodies can be regarded as a manifestation of an intrinsic feature of animated film, similar in function to what Sergei Eisenstein called ‘plasmaticness'. This feature disappears from animated films when animated characters are humanized.


Péter Gerencsér: From Propaganda to Metalingual Self-Reflection: On the Political Tradition of the Czech Animated Film

This study focuses on the relationship of the Czech animation and political themes within the period between the 1930s and the 1960s, particularly through Hermína Týrlová's Ferda the Ant (1943) and Revolt of the Toys (1946), Wedding in the Coral Sea (1945) formally directed by Horst von Möllendorff, and Jiří Trnka's The Spring-Man and the SS (1946) and The Hand (1965). It reads these films in the contexts of puppet film and hybrid technique (live action and stop motion) on the one hand, while, on the other hand, of the Disney style, the Nazi propaganda cinema and wartoon. It examines the trajectory of Czech animated film from advertising animated shorts through propaganda film and political satire to the masterpiece of Trnka's The Hand that combines political allegory and self-reflexive film.


Patrícia Castello-Branco: Pure Sensations? From Abstract Film to Digital Images

This article is a study of ‘film as sensation'. It provides a new approach to abstract cinema practices and demonstrates that they include the idea of ‘pure sensation'. Therefore, abstract cinema should not be interpreted as purely structural and conceptual. The author argues that ‘film as sensation' has been part of the essence of cinema since the very beginning of its history. The argument proceeds from a brief rewriting of the history of abstract cinema towards demonstrating how ‘film as sensation' is present in the essential moments of cinema's history. Furthermore, it is argued that this concept of ‘film as sensation' does not correspond to an idea of cinema or visual effects as ‘pure entertainment' but should be understood as a ‘critical rupture'. This idea of ‘critical rupture' finds its theoretical justification in the concept of ‘perceptive shock' or ‘perceptive trauma' from which Walter Benjamin justified the aesthetic intentions of the new-born art.


Anna Ida Orosz: "History from the Inside". A survey to analyze the representation of memory in historical animated documentaries

In the present paper I propose a solution to the apparent paradox of animated documentaries through the definition of its problematics and the analysis of specific cinematographic examples. Following the short introduction of the two film-making practices, I give an overview of the widely used and accepted Nicholsian typology of live action documentaries. The question examined is whether and how animated films can be included in the documentary typology and what consequences are entailed by such a fusion. I analyze the "marriage" of specific filmic examples taken from the genre of history documentaries, which I see as the perfect field to demonstrate the duality of the fictional and the real, of the constructed and the re-constructed. Photographic documentary footage serves to evoke historical events in a direct manner, and through them the mise-en-scène of history ("history from the outside"), while animated sequences evoke history through personal life experiences in a deeply subjective manner ("history from the inside").

Csilla Zsély: Animated Characters Against Hitler. The Animation Propaganda of the United States During World War II

The essay analyses the animation propaganda of the United States during World War II in many different aspects with the purpose to acquaint the reader with a special part of the American animated film history currently outside the canon. The analysis tries to give a comprehensive representation of this period: besides the war plot orientated animated films it also discusses films about the antagonistic ideology and demonstrates the propaganda aiming to win the support of the people in the homeland.


Barbara Dudás: Game and film without Borders

The paper examines the mutual influence of computer games and cinema. Computer games feature several elements that are borrowed from the filmic toolbox, such as montage, cut-scenes and trailers, and thus the genre is clearly influenced by film. The effect, however, works the other way as well. In order to prove this proposition, the argument sets out with the overview of Lev Manovich's database logic, and analyses the way this logic is applicable to games, as well as the way games can influence films in this framework. One example is the technology relying on the database logic used for crowd scenes in feature films, while the other is Manovich's Soft Cinema. The argument proceeds with the presentation of the algorithm-logic of games, as well as the repetition-logic defined by the user - these tools can be detected in feature films as well. Finally, the adaptation of the player is discussed in the film entitled Doom, while the logic of cut scenes is detected in Sucker Punch. Interactive cinema is described as the best example of the mutual influence of game and film, combining the advantages of both.